Selasa, 25 Oktober 2011

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Rabu, 06 Oktober 2010



If You Answer “Yes!” to Any of These, PPx May Be Right For You!

If you want Clear, Flawless Glowing Skin and:
o You wish your complexion looked smoother and more luminescent
o You wish you had smaller pores
o You wish your skin appeared less dull and more radiant
o You wish your skin was less oily
o You wish you had fewer blackheads
o You want to remove the brown or red spots, tiny broken capillaries or sun damaged skin on your face, neck, chest, arms or hands

If you want Smooth, Hair Free Skin:
o You are tired of shaving your legs, underarms, bikini line
o You would like to remove hair on your face
o You would like to remove hair on your back
o You would like to remove or lighten the hair on your arms
o You have other issues with unwanted hair


Photopneumatic Technology (PPx) is a proprietary combination of pneumatic energy with a broadband light source.

PPx is the first technology to manipulate the optical characteristics of the skin resulting in the ability to transmit 4-5 times greater energy to targets at any depth.

How It Works
The treatment tip is placed over the area to be treated
The area to be treated is gently drawn into the treatment tip, bringing it closer to the skin’s surface. You may even find your pores are cleansed of impurities
In a fraction of a second, light energy is gently applied to the treatment area.
Impurities, unwanted hair, red or brown pigment and unsightly veins are quickly and painlessly destroyed, leaving the skin with a clean, fresh and youthful look.

The PPx Pore-Cleansing ACNE Treatment helps clear acne while helping to cleanse your pores, leaving your skin feeling cleaner and clearer. This unique acne treatment has even helped people who previously did not respond to topicals, antibiotics and painful laser treatments.
Painless, quick and effective. There are no numbing gels, no lengthy treatment times or no sensitivity to light, so you’re in and out in a flash.

How It Works
The treatment tip is placed on the skin
A painless vacuum gently pulls impurities closer to the skin’s surface
A painless light flashes, helping to destroy bacteria
The PPx Painless ACNE Treatment helps leave your skin cleaner and clearer.

As we age and our skin is exposed to the sun, smoke and other pollutants, it undergoes fundamental changes that result in uneven and blotchy pigmentation, redness, brown spots and unsightly veins. These very visible signs of aging can now be addressed with the breakthrough PPx treatment to correct the appearance of damaged skin, leaving skin looking healthy and youthful

How It Works
The treatment tip is placed on the area to be treated
The area to be treated is gently drawn into the treatment tip, bringing unwanted red or brown pigment and unsightly veins closer to the skin’s surface.
Light energy is gently applied to the treatment area
Unwanted red or brown pigment and unsightly veins are quickly and painlessly destroyed, leaving the skin with a fresh and youthful look.

Until recently, hair removal was a painful and time consuming procedure. With the advance PPx technology, permanent hair reduction is now safe and pain free on all skin and hair types

How It Works
The treatment tip is placed on the area to be treated
The area to be treated is gently drawn into the treatment tip, bringing the unwanted hair closer to the skin’s surface
Light energy is gently applied to the treatment area
Unwanted hair is quickly and painlessly destroyed, leaving the skin clean and smooth

What is PPx Therapy?
Photopneumatic Therapy is an USA FDA (Food & Drugs Administration) cleared therapy and has proven to be a painless cosmetic treatment for Skin Rejuvenation, Permanent Hair Reduction and Pore Cleansing Acne Treatment.

How is PPx therapy different from other laser and light based treatments?
There are several key differences between PPx and other laser and light-based treatments.
1. PPx Therapy offers optimum results on most skn conditions with the most advanced treatment technology
2. Treatment is gentle and painless
3. It is a fast treatment procedure. Skin Rejuvenation may take up to 20mins. Upper lip Hair removal may take about 1 min, while larger areas for hair removal can take upto 20mins. It takes about 20mins for Acne treatment. Treatment duration varies according to different skin conditions.
4. PPx does not require pre-treatment with gel, anesthetics or numbing creams
5. PPx therapy uses interchangeable treatment tips, thus aids in better hygiene with no risk of infection

Have patients been happy with their results?
PPx therapy is 4 to 5 times safer than other systems. Patients who have undergone PPx were extremely satisfied with their result. Based on recent clinical study on PPx, 100% of the patients surveyed commented that they would choose PPx over previously experienced laser and other Light-Based treatments for hair removal, skin rejuvenation and acne treatments.

How does PPx treatment feel?
PPx therapy is very comfortable. It is a gentle therapy that gives a warm sensation as the skin is drawn into the treatment tip. A gently broadband light energy is emitted to the treated area, immediately after this pneumatic vacuum, your skin will then be gently release back to the normal position. Patients describe the treatment as being similar to a warm massage.

How long will the hair removal results last?
Typically, the patient requires to return to the service provider for a touch-up treatment minimum once yearly after completion of the first entire course of the treatment sessions. However, the result varies from individuals as well as on different body parts.

Is the PPx Acne Treatment cleared by the FDA?
Yes. The PPx system is FDA cleared for 5 different stages of acne, namely, pustular, comedonal, acne vulgaris, etc.

Will I still need to use topicals or other medication for acne?
Please consult your Treatment Specialist. Depending on your skin severity, you may be advised to apply topical concurrently during PPx therapy.

Will I have sensitivity to light following my treatment?
No. unlike some other Light-Based treatments, the PPx System does not cause sensitivity to light.

Do I need to take time off from work to recuperate?
PPx is a fast, non-invasive procedure. You can resume normal activities immediately post treatment.

Will I need anesthesia?
No, PPx therapy is no pain treatment. No anesthesia or numbing creams are necessary.

How many treatments will I need?
The number of treatments is dependent on the condition of the patient to be treated. Generally, the patient requires minimum 5 sessions in order to achieve excellent results. For specific number of treatment required, please consult your Treatment Specialist.

Selasa, 05 Oktober 2010

Inno Peel

INNO-PEEL Whitening
Application of this product is exclusively for professional use.
Properties: skin-resurfacing mask composed of active ingredients derived from vitamin A, in addition to other depigmentation agents, antioxidants, and anti-aging. After applying this product we achieve the following processes at histological level: 1.Protein coagulation, 2.Re-epithelization due to keratinocyte migration from margins, 3.Formation of granulation tissue, accumulation cellular compounds (fibronectin, GAG, fibroblasts, etc.). 4.Remodellation of collagen fibres due to keratinocyte migration.
It acts at different levels at cutaneous level: 1. Epidermis: accelerates cell renewal and cell flaking from the corneum layer, facilitating pigmentation elimination. Furthermore, it produces homogenous re-distribution of melanosomas, and reduction of melanin content, since it stimulates its degradation. 2.Dermo-epidermic union: Produces increase in anchorcing fibres and union restoration via collagen fibre remodeling. 3.Dermis: It disperses melanin accumulation.
Primary indication: Melanic pigmentation: acts by reducing basal pigmentation, dispersing the keratinocyte pigment granules, accelerating epidermis turn-over, thus facilitating pigmentation elimination while stimulating melanin degradation.
Secondary indications: Photoaging: diminishes expression lines, medium and superficial wrinkles improving skin luminosity, texture and tone.
Oily skin and acne sequelae: It diminishes seborrheic secretion, improves superficial acne scars, softens white and black heads, pores and expression lines are less prominent, and improves skin structure.
Application protocol: Prior to application, the professional responsible for applying the mask must define: Patient’s skin phototype, pathology to be treated, corneum stratum thickness, dermic area affected and depth to be reached.
Application: A) Skin preparation: 1.Thorough cleansing using a degreasing solution. 2.Apply occlusive product on areas which the abrasive action must not reach. B) Mask application : 1.Apply a uniform layer of product on skin surface to be treated. 2.Apply a thicker layer in those areas deemed to have most alterations. 3.Application time is between 30 minutes and 2 hours, as per skin phototype, indication, area to be treated and the professional’s opinion. 4.After the appropriate time lapse, mask is removed using a mild oily soap.
Counterindications: Active skin infections, known vitamin a allergy, its derivatives or any other active formula ingredients, recent sun exposure, photosensitivity, immediate social engagements, auto-Immune diseases or presence of purpura lesions. Avoid using during pregnancy.
Post-treatment cares: 24h-48h after application, pruritis, erythema, slight inflammation and sensation of taut skin may appear and last for some time. Normally these symptoms are limited to certain areas. Uniform flaking lasting 3-4 days may also occur, after which the skin is fully regenerated. Extreme sun protection, aloe vera repair gel and/or moisturizing cream must be used to compensate possible post-treatment flaking. As home treatment we recommend using a mild soap for cleansing and from day 5 commence application of the inno-peel post treatment cream, essential for obtaining definitive results. One month after the first application it is advisable to stars a new inno-peel whitening treatment to obtain best results possible on the skin
Adverse Reactions: Remember after skin-resurfacing treatment there always exists a minimum risk of rebound hyper or hypopigmentation, which must be immediately treated by the professional. Post-treatment is highly important to minimize said risk.

Application of this product is exclusively for professional use.
Properties: Two step application skin resurfacing solution combining the revitalizing-antiaging action of solution 1.with the antioxidant-regenerating action of solution, 2.its fundamental action is to maintain dermic collagen, acting at fibroblast level, and stimulating synthesis of new collagen types I and II, those encouraging remodelling of existing elastic fibres.
At cutaneous level it exercises its action by reducing and preventing the passing of time signs, stimulating cell regeneration, which protects us from visible signs of aging. Its immediate visible effect is to increase skin resistance and elasticity, re-firming it giving it luminosity.
It smoothes expression lines and superficial wrinkles in addition to helping lighten melanic pigmentations, reducing excess oil in the skin improving the aspect of distension stretch marks.
Indications: 1.Premature skin aging, 2.Photoaging, 3.Elastic fibre regeneration, 4.Melanic pigmentations, 5.Damaged or spoiled skin, 6.Distension stretch marks
Application protocol: Prior to application, the professional responsible for applying the mask must define: Patient’s skin phototype, pathology to be treated, corneum stratum thickness, dermic area affected and depth to be reached.
Application solution 1:
Thorough cleansing using a degreasing solution
Have ready the neutralizing agent to be used
Apply a uniform layer over the skin surface using a cottonwool ball
The aim is to apply the peeling within 30 seconds. As a preventive measure it is better to start the application in the least reactive or sensitive area
Action time is between 30 and 120 seconds, nevertheless, both time and application frequency depend on professional criteria
Next neutralize with a slightly alkaline product or rinsing with abundant water when the professional considers time is up or when the following symptoms are observed: marked erythema, intense patient discomfort or excessive skin whitening
Should patient have a strong burning sensation, intense erythema, headache or nausea neutralize immediately.
Treatment not recommended in the case of: allergies, skin disease, active simple herpes, warts, sunburn, pregnancy or breastfeeding, active acne or open wounds.
Application solution 2: Apply gently massaging on dry skin and leaving to act until completely absorbed.
Post-treatment care: On successive treatment days, it is essential inno-peel LactobioC Post-Treatment emulsion be used to obtain desired results, prolonging application until skin is fully regenerated.
Avoid sun exposure and use extreme sun screen.
Adverse reactions: Remember with a peeling application there is always a minimum risk of rebound hyperpigmentation or hypopigmentation, which must be immediately treated by the professional. This is why, post-treatment is extremely important to minimize said risk.

It’s not magic, it’s BOTOX
What is BOTOX?
BOTOX is a natural, purified protein that relaxes wrinkle-causing muscles creating a smoothed, rejuvenated and more youthful appearance. It’s a simple non-surgical procedure that smoothes the deep, persistent facial lines that develop over time. One ten minute treatment-a few tiny injections-relaxes the muscles that cause those lines to form and keeps them relaxed for four months.
The results are dramatic and apparent within days. For many, BOTOX temporarily erases these lines.
BOTOX is the only botulinum toxin in the world registered for the treatment of frown lines and approved by the US FDA. It has been widely tested with 12 years of safe and effective use in hundreds of thousands patients worldwide for various medical uses.

How BOTOX works
Many facial wrinkles occur when we make repeated facial expressions. BOTOX relaxes the tiny facial muscles that cause expression lines, leaving the overlying skin smooth and unwrinkled. Once the muscles is relaxed, you cannot contract it and continue to make the undesirable facial expression. Thus the lines gradually smooth out from disuse, and new creases are prevented from forming
BOTOX works on the specific areas treated. Other muscles like those used to raise the eyebrows are not affected so a natural expression is maintained. It will not “freeze” your facial expressions.
It softens them and works where you want it to.

What to expect from the treatment
Your doctor will determine exactly where to use BOTOX to achieve the best results. No anesthetic is required, although your doctor may use ice before injecting. Treatment takes around 10 minutes. A tiny amount of BOTOX is placed in selected facial muscles via tiny injections using a very fine needle. Discomfort is minimal and brief-most patients describe it as an ant bite sting for a few seconds.
Most people resume normal activities immediately. After injection, it takes 2-3 days for BOTOX to begin taking effect and around 7 days to see the full effect.
BOTOX lasts for up to four months, depending on the individual.
You can decide to repeat the procedure as you wish. The result will wear off gradually and expression lines slowly return. To maintain the effect you will require repeat injections 2-3 times a year. Studies show that with repeat BOTOX treatment, the effect can last longer, so you may require less frequent treatment in the future to maintain the result you have come to like
In the amounts used for wrinkle therapy, the most common side effects are temporary and localized to the area of injection. These include soreness or mild bruising, which can be easily covered with makeup, headache, and less commonly, you may develop a heavy eyelid lasting 1-4 weeks which your doctor may be able to treat.
There have been no permanent side effects of BOTOX reported.

BOTOX is not recommended during pregnancy or breastfeeding or for patients with a neuromuscular disease.

Where can it be used?
BOTOX is used widely for the elimination of:
o Frown lines between the eyebrows
o Horizontal forehead wrinkles
o Crows feet or smile lines around the eyes
It is also being used to lift the eyebrow and open up the eye for a more youthful appearance. Doctors have also reported good results in nasolabial folds between the nose and mouth, perioral lines (“smokers lips”), reducing neck lines and chin dimpling or creasing.

Rabu, 15 September 2010

Topic 7: Essential oils
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Classifying essential oils
7.3 Physical properties of essential oils
7.4 Chemical properties of essential oils
7.5 Obtaining essential oils
7.6 Main uses of essential oils
7.7. References
7.1 Introduction
Essential oils are compounds made up of several organic volatile substances. These may be
alcohols, acetones, cetones, ethers, aldehydes, and are produced and stored in the secretion
canals of plants.
At room temperature they are usually liquid. Given their volatility, they can be extracted using
steam distillation, though other methods exist. On the whole, they are responsible for the
aromas of plants.
According to AFNOR (1998), they are defined as:
Products obtained from raw vegetable matter either by steam dragging or by mechanised
processes (epicarpium of citrus fruits) or by dry distillation. The essential oil is later separated in
the aqueous phase, using physical methods in the first two cases. They are able to undergo
physical treatment without important changes in composition (re-distilling, airing…).
This definition clearly establishes the differences there are between medicinal essential oils and
other aromatic substances used in pharmacy and perfumery which are commonly known as
Essential oils are widely distributed in nature and are found in conifers (pine, fir), myrtaceae
(eucalyptus), rutaceae (citrus spp), compounds (camomile), although the majority of plants with
essential oils are found in the labiatae (mint, lavender, thyme, rosemary) and umbelliferous
(aniseed) families.
They are found in different organs: roots, ryzomes (ginger), wood (camphor), leaf (eucalyptus),
flowering parts (Labiatae family).
Composition depends on place of origin. The habitat where the plant grows (normally warm
climates have more essential oils), the moment of harvesting, extraction methods, etc… are
also important.
Among the main therapeutic properties of essential oils antiseptics stands out (for many years
these spices have been added to foodstuffs not just for flavouring but to help preserve them).
Other properties are: antispasmodic, expectorant, carminative, eupeptic…
We should bear in mind that certain essential oils, especially in high doses, may be toxic to the
central nervous system in particular. Others, such as rue or juniper have abortive properties.
Others may cause skin problems, rashes or allergies
In addition to having therapeutic properties, essential oils are widely used in the pharmaceutical,
food, and perfume (especially) industries.
7.2 Classifying essential oils
Essential oils may be classified using different criteria: consistency, origin, and chemical nature
of the main components.
a. Consistency
Depending on their consistency, essential oils are classified as :
Fluid essences are liquids which are volatile at room temperature.
Balsams are natural extracts obtained from a bush or tree. They usually have a high
benzoic and cynamic acid content with their corresponding esthers. They are thicker, not
very volatile, and less likely to react by polymerising. Examples of balsams are copaiba
balsam, Peruvian balsam, Banguy balsam, Tolu balsam, Liquid amber…
Within the resin group we find a number of possible combinations and mixes:
1. Resins. These are amorphous solid or semi-solid products of a complex chemical
nature. They are physiological or physio-pathological in origin. Colophony, for example,
is obtained by separating trementine an oleoresin. It contains abietic acid and derivates.
2. Oleoresins. These are homogeneous mixes of resins and essential oils. Trementine,
for example, is obtained by making incisions in the trunk of different pine species. It
contains resin (colophony) and essential oil (trementine essence) which are separated
by steam drag distillation.
The term oleoresin is also used to refer to vegetable extracts obtained using solvents,
which should be virtually free of said solvents. They are frequently used instead of
spices in foodstuffs and pharmacy because of their advantages (stability, microbiotic
and chemical uniformity, and easy to add). They have the aroma of the plant in
concentrated form and are highly viscous liquids or semi-solid substances (black
pepper, paprika oleoresin, cloves…).
3. Gum-resins. These are natural plant or tree extracts. They are a mix of gums and
b. Origin.
Depending on their origin, essential oils are classified as:
Natural oils are obtained straight from the plant and are not modified physically or
chemically afterwards. However, they are expensive because of their limited yield.
Artificial oils are obtained using processes of enriching the essence with one or several of
its components. For example, essences of rose, geranium, and jasmine are enriched with
linalool, and aniseed essence with athenol.
Synthetic oils, as the name suggests, are usually produced by combining their chemically
synthesised components. These are the cheapest and are thus much more commonly used
as fragrance and taste enhancers (vanilla, lemon and strawberry essences…)
c. Chemical nature.
The total essential oil content of a plant is generally low (less than 1%). However, by
extraction we obtain a highly concentrated form which is used in industrial processes. Most
of these are highly complex chemical compounds. The proportion of these substances
varies depending on the oil, but also on season, time of day, growing conditions, and
The term chemotype refers to the variation in chemical composition of an essential oil,
even of the same species. A chemo-type is a distinct chemical entity, different from
secondary metabolites. Certain small variations in the environment, geographical location,
genes…) which have little or no effect on a morphological level can, however, produce big
changes in chemical phenotypes.
Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is a typical example. It has 6 different chemo-types depending on
which is the main component of its essence (timol, carvacrol, linalool, geraniol, tuyanol -4,
or terpineol). When this is the case, the plant is named using the name of the species
followed by the main component of its chemo-type. For example, Thymus vulgaris linalool,
Thymus vulgaris timol.
7.3 Physical properties of essential oils.
Essential oils are volatile and become liquid at room temperature.
When distilled they are at first colourless or slightly yellowish.
They are less dense than water (sassafras essence and clove essence being exceptions).
They are nearly always rotational and have a high refractory index.
They are soluble in alcohol and in the usual organic solvents, such as ether or chloroform,
and also in high grade alcohol.
They are lipo-soluble and not very soluble in water, but can be dragged using steam.
7.4 Chemical properties of essential oils (terpenoids).
Essential oil components are divided into terpenoids and non-terpenoids.
i. Non-terpenoids. This group contains short-chain aliphatic substances,
aromatic substances, nitrogenated substances, and substances with
sulphur. They are less important than terpenoids in terms of uses and
ii. Terpenoids. These are more important commercially and in terms of their
Terpenes, as we saw in topic 10, derive from isoprene units (C5) bonded in a chain.
Terpenes are a type of chemical substance found in essential oils, resins, and other
aromatic plant substances, (pines, citrus fruits…). They are usually found in
monoterpene oils (C15) and diterpenes (C20). They may be aliphatic, cyclic, or
According to their function group they can be:
· Alcohols (menthol, bisabolol) and phenols (timol, carvacrol)
· Aldehydes (geranial, citral) and cetones (camphor, thuyone)
· Esthers (bornile acetate, linalile acetate, methyl salicilate, anti-inflammatory
compound similar to aspirin)
· Ethers (1.8 - cineol) and peroxides (ascaridol)
· Hydrocarbons (limonene, pinene α and β)
Table one shows the functional groups for each category:
Compound Functional Group Example Properties
Alcohol Menthol, geraniol
Anti--microbe, antiseptic,
tonic, spasmodic
Aldehyde Citral, citronelal Spasmodic, sedative,
Cetona Camphor, tuyona
Mucolitic, regenerator
cellular, neurotoxic
Esther Methyl salicilate
Spasmodic, sedative,
Ethers -C – O – C - Cineol, ascaridol Expectorant, stimulant
Phenolic ether Ring – O – C Safrol, anetol, miristicine
diuretic, carminative,
stomach, expectorant
Phenol Timol, eugenol,
Stimulant (imunological)
Only contain C and
Pinene, limonene
Stimulant, decongestant
Antiviral, antitumoral
a. Monoterpenic hydrocarbons
These are the commonest compounds in essential oils, and precursors of the
more complex oxidised terpenes. Their names end in –ene.
Limonene, for example, is the precursor to the main components of mint
essences (Mentha spp, Lamiaceae Family) such as carvone and menthol.
Limonene is also found in citric plants and in dill (Anethum graveolens,
Apiaceae family).
Pinene α and β are also widely present in nature, especially in trementine
essence of the Pinus genre (Pinaceae family).
b. Alcohols
Alcohols have the hydroxile group (OH) bonded to a C10
skeleton. Their names end in –ol. They are highly sought after for their
Linalool, for example, has two forms. R-linalool is found in roses and
lavender and is the main component of Mentha arvensis. S-linalool found in
lavender oil at > 5% indicates adulteration.
Linalool gives tea, thyme, and cardamom leaves their taste. Menthol,
another compound found in this group, is responsible for the smell and taste
of mint. Mint essence may contain up to 50% of this component.
Geraniol, from scented geraniums (Pelargonium spp), citronelol, from
roses (Rosa gallica), borneol from rosemary, and santalol from sandalwood
(Santalum album, Santalaceae family).
c. Aldehydes
Aldehydes are highly reactive compounds. Their names end
in –al. Many of them, such as those found in citrus fruits,
match their respective alcohol. For example: geraniol –
geranial, and citronelol – citronelal.
They are found in abundance in citrus plants, and are
responsible for their characteristic smell, particularly the
isomers geranial (α citral) and neral (β citral) known as citral
in combination (see graphic).
In addition to its characteristic aroma, citral has anti-viral, antimicrobiotic,
and sedative properties. But many aldehydes,
including citral, cause irritation to the skin and can not be used
Another important group are the aromatic aldehydes, such as
benzaldehyde, main ingredient of bitter almond oil and cause
of their typical aroma.
d. Phenols
They are only found in a few species but are very powerful and
The most important are timol and carvacrol, which are found
in thyme (Thymus) and oregano (Origanus), both of the
Labiatae family.
Another important phenol is eugenol, which is found in many
species, for example, clove essence. It is both a powerful
bactericide and also anaesthetic, and is used in dentistry.
e. Phenolic Ethers
These are the main components of species such as celery and
parsley (apiol), aniseed (anetol), basil (metilchavicol), and
estragon (estragol).
Safrol is a component which is used extensively in the perfume
industry and is found in the bark of the sassafras tree
(Sassafras albidum Lauraceae family).
f. Ketones
These are produced by the oxidisation of alcohols and are fairly
stable molecules. They end in –one. Carvone is found in Mentha
Tuyone -first isolated in Tuya- (Thuja occidentalis Cupressaceae
family) and pulegone are fairly toxic and should never be used
during pregnancy.
Tuyone is found in plants of the Artemisia genus (Artemisia
absinthium with which absinthe and vermouth are made), and in
salvia (Salvia officinalis).
Pulegona was first isolated in Mentha pulegium.
g. Ethers
Ethers or monoterpenic oxides are reactive and unstable. One
example is bisabolol oxide found in camomile (Matricaria
Another common ether is 1.8 –cineol (also known as eucaliptol),
which is the main component of eucalyptus oil. It is an expectorant
and mucolitic, and the main component of cough medicines.
The aroma of eucalyptus oil varies depending on 1.8 –cineol
content: the oil with a high content (Eucalptus globulus) is used for
medicinal purposes, whereas that with a lower content (Eucaliptus
radiata) is used in aromatherapy.
h. Esthers
Most esthers are formed from a reaction of a terpenic alcohol with
an acetic acid. Their aroma is characteristic of the oils in which they
are found.
Lavender oil, for example, contains linalool in its esther, linalile
acetate. The relative abundance of both these components is a sign
of good quality.
Methyl salicilate, a derivate of salicylic acid and methanol, is an
anti-inflammatory compound similar to aspirin and is found in a certain
type of heather (Gaultheria procumbens Ericaceae family). It is used
externally in liniments.
7.5 Industrial uses of essential oils. Applying industrial processes to essential oils.
These are processes which are applied to essential oils and other aromatic vegetable
extracts to separate and concentrate components ready for industrial use or simply to make
it easier to homogenise quality.
a. Obtaining essential oils.
Steam drag distillation. The plants are placed on a perforated base or sieve at a certain
distance over a distilling tank. The tank contains water at a level less than the depth of the
sieve. Heating is via saturated steam when the water is heated using an in-built heater. The
steam flows at a low pressure and penetrates the vegetable matter. The component parts
volatilise and are then condensed in a refrigeration tube and collected in a Florentine flask
where water and oil are separated because of difference in density.
Pericarpium squeezing. This consists of a tray with spikes on it and a channel underneath
to collect essential oils. It is usually used for citrus fruits.
Solution in fats (enfleurage). Oils are soluble in fats and high grade alcohols. A thin film of
fat is placed on a glass plate and flower petals are then spread over it. The essence passes
into the fat until saturated. Then the essential oil is extracted using 70% proof alcohol. It is
used for flowers with a low but prized essential oil content (roses, violets, jasmine, orange
Extraction using organic solvents. These penetrate the vegetable matter and dissolve
substances, which are then evaporated and concentrated at low temperature. Then the
solvent is eliminated, leaving only the fraction we want.
When choosing a solvent we want it to dissolve all the ingredients quickly while dissolving
the minimum amount of inert matter. It should have a low and even boiling point so that it
can quickly be eliminated, though this should not cause ingredient losses. It should be
chemically inert, so as not to react with the components in the oils, non-flammable, and
This ideal solvent does not exist, and petroleum ether (boiling point between 30 and 70
degrees, flammable, easy to evaporate), benzene (which also dissolves waxes and
pigments), and alcohol (soluble in water) are commonly used. Alcohol is used when there
are components with a high molecular weight but which are not volatile enough.
Extraction using gases in super-critical conditions. Gases (usually CO2) at a
temperature and pressure above their critical points) are used. In these conditions, yield is
good and we avoid changes in the components of the essential oils. The necessary infrastructure
is expensive, put has its advantages, such as the rapid elimination of the extractor
gas by decompression, the absence of solvent residue, and the fact that gases are not
b. Rectification.
This is the most common process. It consists in fractioning in a rectification column so as to
obtain portions which are then analysed separately. Those of the same quality are mixed
together. On the whole, essential oils are fractioned into three parts:
-Top or light part.
-Heart or middle part.
-Heavy fraction.
c. Fractioning.
This is similar to the above but the split is more specific. Essential oils with a 60-70% citral
content are fractioned to try and eliminate other components so as to obtain 90-97% purity.
d. Deterpening.
When we eliminate terpenes (if they do not have the organo-leptic properties we want) the
essential oil becomes more soluble in water, and smell and colour are concentrated.
e. Dewaxing.
When an essential oil is extracted by squeezing rather than steam distilling, it contains
compounds such as the wax from the epicarpia of the fruit (as well as volatile terpenic
f. Filtering.
Raw essential oils are filtered using filtering soils or other materials which retain residual
water (anhydrous sodium sulphate, magnesium carbonate…). This eliminates impurities.
g. Chemical reactions.
To obtain new aromatic products of a better quality or value, with pleasanter sensations, we
can use:
-Estherification (cedar, vetiver, and mint).
-Hydrogenation (citronella).
-Hydration (trementine)
h. Discolouring.
For essences with bright colours.
-Bursera graveolens.
i. Washing.
We wash the oil with a 1% sodium hydroxide or 10% sodium carbonate solution. This
eliminates the unpleasant smell caused by the presence of acids and phenols.
j. Standardising.
This is not an industrial process in itself. It arises from the need to homogenise or normalise
the quality of a product, because of the many variables which modify its characteristics. It is
carried out to comply with industrial requirements: same characteristics whatever the origin,
time of year, time of harvest…
k. Isolating specific products.
Some essences are commercialised to isolate some of their main components, such as
eugenol (essence of clove) or cedrol (essence of cedar).
7.6 Uses of essential oils
Food industry.
They are used to season or condiment meats, dried and cured meats, soups, ice-cream,
cheese… the most commonly used essential oils are cilantrum, orange, and mint. They are
also used in the elaboration of alcoholic and soft drinks, especially the latter. We should
make specific mention here of the essences of orange, lemon, mint and fennel, which are
also used in the making of sweets and chocolates.
Pharmaceutical industry.
They are used in toothpastes (mint and fennel essences), analgesics, and decongestant
inhalers (eucalyptus). Eucalyptol is also widely used in dentistry. They are used in many
medicines to neutralise unpleasant tastes (essence of orange or mint, for example).
Cosmetic industry.
This industry uses essential oils to make cosmetics, soaps, scents, perfumes, and make-up.
We should mention geranium, lavender, roses and patchouli essences as common
Veterinary product industry.
This industry uses the essential oil of the Chenopodium ambrosoides, which is highly prized
for its ascaridol (worm-killer) content. Limonene and menthol are also used to make
Industrial deodorants.
At present, the use of essences to disguise the unpleasant smell of industrial products like
rubber, plastic and paint is being developed. Paint manufacturers use limonene as a biodegradable
solvent. Toys are also scented. In the textile industry they are used to mask
unpleasant smells before and after dyeing. In paper manufacture, products such as
notebooks, toilet paper, and face wipes are scented.
Tobacco industry.
Requires menthol for mentholated cigarettes.
Biocides and insecticides.
There are certain substances such as thyme, cloves, salvia, mint, oregano, pine… with
bactericidal properties. Others are insecticides:
- Against ants: Mentha spicata (spearmint), Tanacetum y pennyroyal.
- Against aphids: garlic, other Allium, coriander, aniseed, basil.
- Against fleas: lavender, mints, lemongrass, etc.
- Against flies: rue, citronella, mint, etc.
- Against lice: Mentha spicata, basil, rue, etc.
- Against moths: mints, Hisopo, rosemary, dill, etc.
- Against coleoptera: Tanacetum, cumin, wormwood and thyme, etc.
- Against cockroaches: mint, wormwood, eucalyptus, laurel, etc.
- Against nematods: Tagetes, salvia, calendula, Asparagus, etc.
Table 2. Some species with commercially used essential oils.
Common name Scientific name Family
Ajedrea Satureja montana Labiateae
Basil Ocimun basilicum Labiatae
Salvia Salvia sclarea Labiatae
Artemisia Artemisia vulgaris Asteraceaeae
Cardamom Elettaria cardamomum Zingiberaceae
Juniper Juniperus communis Cupresaceae
Lavender Lavandula latifolia Labiatae
Estragon Artemisia dracunculus Asteraceae
Eucalyptus Eucalyptus globulus Myrtaceae
Hisopo Hyssopus officinalis Labiatae
Lavender Lavandula officinalis; L. angustifolia Labiatae
Lavandine L. latifolia x L. angustifolia Labiatae
Melissa Melissa officinalis Labiatae
Mint Mentha piperita; M. spicata Labiatae
Myrtle Myrtus communis Myrtaceae
Oregano Origanum vulgare; O. majoricum Labiatae
Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis Labiatae
Salvia Salvia officinalis Labiatae
Spanish Salvia Salvia lavandulifolia Labiatae
Sandalwood Santalum album Santalaceae
Thyme Thymus vulgaris Labiatae
Ylang – Ylang Cananga odorata Annonaceae
7.7. References
Bruneton, J. (2001). Farmacognosia. Fitoquímica. Plantas Medicinales. 2nd Ed. Zaragoza:
Acribia S. A.
Las Plantas de Extractos. Bases para un Plan de Desarrollo del Sector. Fundación Alfonso
Martín Escudero. Madrid, 1999.
Pengelly, A. (1996). The constituents of Medicinal Plants. 2nd Ed. Cabi Publishing, U. K.
Publicaciones de la Cátedra de Farmacognosia y productos naturales. Facultad de Química,
Universidad de la República Oriental del Uruguay.
Van Ginkel, A. (2003). Apuntes del Máster y Diplomatura de posgrado de la UAB “Plantas
Medicinales y Fitoterapia. Módulo 2. Cultivo de plantas medicinales. Tecnología y Producción.”

Jumat, 29 Februari 2008

Perempuan-Perempuan Perkasa

Wanita dijajah pria sejak dulu
Dijadikan perhiasan sangkar madu

Sepenggal bait lagu berjudul “Sabda Alam” karya mendiang seniman besar Ismail Marzuki diatas menggulirkan pesan yang tak sulit untuk ditafsirkan, yakni bagaimana perempuan adalah mahluk lemah yang menjadi objek atas hegemoni kaum Adam.

Namun potret di atas tidaklah sepenuhnya benar jika dihadapkan pada realitas kekininan di mana sepak terjang perempuan terus menunjukan kapasitasnya sebagai sosok yang dapat diandalkan. Simak saja di tengah pusaran budaya patriarki yang demikian kuat, partisipasi perempuan Indonesia terus memasuki ruang sosial secara lebih luas hingga pada puncaknya perempuan Indonesia benar-benar tidak bisa dipandang sebelah mata kala jabatan paling prestisius dalam sebuah negara yakni Presiden pernah diduduki oleh seorang kaum hawa.

Tak hanya pada ranah elitis dan popular semata, di mana kiprah perempuan menggoreskan prestasi serta mewarnai dinamika kehidupan sosial. Jauh di belahan lainnya ada seribu satu kisah perempuan yang mampu menunjukan jati dirinya sebagai mahluk yamg kuat serta pantang menyerah dalam menghadapi keadaan-keadaan yang sulit.

Sebut saja teh Lilis (41) demikian ia biasa disapa, kehidupannya sebagai ibu rumah tangga mulai berubah sejak suaminya terkena Pemutusan Hubungan Kerja (PHK) empat tahun silam. Kenyataan pahit yang menimpa keluarga Lilis bertambah karena tidak lama selepas PHK, suaminya mengalami depresi serta gangguan jantung.

Ada tekad luhur yang memotivasi Lilis untuk melakukan sesuatu yang mungkin saja masih dianggap janggal bagi kebanyakan masyarakat kita. Pada tahun 2004 Lilis menjadi tenaga sekuriti pada salah satu rumah sakit swasta di Bandung. Setelah masa kontrak kerjanya habis, pada tahun 2005 ia kemudian beralih haluan menjadi tukang ojeg hingga sekarang. “Saya ngojeg karena suami sakit dan tidak bisa kerja berat saya jadi nggak tega ngeliatnya dulu kan sewaktu suami masih sehat ia nyenegin kita, nah sekarang suami lagi kena musibah saya tidak boleh merengek dan harus bantu dia, kita juga ingin mandiri lebih baik begini ketimbang nyusahin orang, terus yang penting buat saya, ini semua demi sekolah anak dan kelangsungan keluarga,“ujar Lilis.

Babak baru Lilis sebagai tukang ojeg tidaklah semulus apa yang ia bayangkan, tentangan demi tentangan datang menghantamnya baik itu dari keluarga, lingkungan bahkan dari sesama tukang ojeg. Derasnya hujan serta teriknya matahari ditambah kerasnya hidup di jalanan tak pernah mematahkan semangatnya untuk tetap hidup mandiri dan menjaga kelangsungan hidup keluarga dan pendidikan kedua anaknya Dery Erlangga Rizky Pratama yang kini menjadi siswa SMK Negeri 2 serta Mulky Maulana Putra kelas enam Sekolah Dasar Negeri Pada Suka V. ”Saya diejek, memalukan katanya perempuan-perempuan kok ngojek, ejekan itu dari keluarga, tetangga, tukang ojeg sendiri tapi saya sabar aja toh lama-lama jadi biasa, saya harus bisa menyesuaikan diri saat ngojeg soalnya laki-laki semua, cuma saya sendiri perempuannnya. Dan saya nggak malu apalagi gengsi yang penting anak-anak bisa sekolah dan keluarga bisa makan. Justru saya malu kalau menjalankan hal-hal yang dilarang kalau ngojeg kan halal dan saya juga malu kalau sampai anak-anak tidak bisa sekolah,” tandas Lilis. Profesi yang kini ia geluti membawanya pula pada pengalaman yang mungkin tak pernah terbayangkan sebelumnya. Pernah Lilis harus bermotor ria mengantarkan penumpang keluar kota seperti Sumedang dan Lembang, bahkan pada suatu waktu ia pernah nyaris saja jadi korban aksi perampokan.

Sebagai orang tua Lilis sadar betul bahwa kehadirannya sangatlah dibutuhkan keluarga. Untuk itu ia berusaha memanfaatkan waktu sebaik mungkin hingga di tengah kerja kerasnya ia tetap bisa menjalankan tugasnya sebagai seorang ibu.

Usai sembahyang subuh seperti biasa Lilis mengerjakan apa yang dilakukan oleh ibu-ibu rumah tangga pada umumnya yakni mencuci dan menyiapkan sarapan pagi untuk anak serta suami. Setelah mengantarkan kedua anaknya sekolah, ia lantas berjibaku mengais rezeki bersama para tukang ojeg lainnya yang berjumlah kurang lebih lima ratus orang. Tiba pukul dua belas siang Lilis menjemput kedua anaknya sekolah, setepas shalat Dzuhur ia menyiapkan makan siang selanjutnya hingga pukul lima sore ia kembali mengojeg, namun disela-sela waktu tersebut ia pulang untuk menengok keadaan dirumah sekaligus shalat Ashar karena ibadah ritual yang satu ini nyaris tak pernah ia tinggalkan.

Memasuki petang hari barulah ia bisa meluangkan banyak waktu bersama keluarga. Sambil bercengkerama Lilis memanfaatkan kesempatan ini untuk menanyakan perkembangan sekolah anak-anaknya. Perhatian Lilis terhadap pendidikan sangatlah besar. Tengok saja, sekali dalam sebulan ia selalu mengunjungi tempat di mana kedua anaknya sekolah. ”Saya ngecek ke guru mereka, nanyain gimana perkembangan anak-anak saya di sekolah, bukan apa-apa saya ingin mereka berhasil. Saya juga akan berusaha sekuat tenaga membiayai mereka sampai perguruan tinggi,” ujar Lilis.

Dalam Konteks Kesetaraan Gender

Dari aspek sosial dan hukum, sejatinya perempuan secara kodrati memiliki keterbatasan dalam melakukan kegiatan fisik, terlebih keberadaan perempuan Indonesia selama kurang lebih tiga puluh tahun dibangun atas akar kultural serta struktural sebagai mainstream yang diciptakan oleh kekuasaan di mana peran perempuan diposisikan sebagai pendukung laki-laki. Pada konteks ini perempuan tak dianggap sebagai pencari nafkah utama.

“Keadaan membangun kesadaran”, pepatah tersebut benarlah adanya, buktinya adalah potret Lilis dan banyak lagi kisah-kisah serupa. Realitas ekonomi kekinian yang sulit telah mengakibatkan tuntutan kehidupan ekonomi yang semakin berat. Pada kondisi ini tidak ada lagi batasan bagi wanita untuk melakukan tugas-tugas yang mengedepankan kekuatan fisik, bahkan lebih jauh diakui atau tidak ia bisa menjadi pencari nafkah utama.

Logika lainnya dalam konteks pergulatan kesetaraan gender yang terus bergulir ada banyak lembaga maupun individu yang terus melakukan kerja-kerja edukasi. Hal ini diproyeksikan untuk membuka ruang kesadaran perempuan bahwa mereka adalah sosok yang memiliki kepribadian yang kuat serta mempunyai kemampuan untuk bisa bertahan dan merubah sebuah keadaan dengan segala dimensinya menjadi lebih baik. Menariknya hal ini pula yang ditangkap secara cerdas oleh PT.Unilever Indonesia, Tbk, dalam rangka peluncuran varian terbaru dari Sunsilk. Mereka mengemas kampanye produk mereka yang bertajuk “Sunsilk Unbrakable Women“ dengan mengusung pesan sosial bagi perempuan Indonesia agar mereka menyadari akan kekuatan jiwa yang ada pada dirinya sekaligus dapat menghargai jati diri mereka sebagai pribadi yang kuat. Pesan sosial lainnya bagaimana perempuan harus menancapkan keyakinan bahwa kiprah mereka dapat memberikan manfaat positif bagi diri dan lingkungannya.

Pesan sosial di atas sejalan dengan apa yang dicita-citakan oleh Kartini yakni kemajuan perempuan yang utuh dalam arti kemajuan perempuan harus pula mampu mengangkat derajat lingkungannya serta masyarakat secara umum. Dari perspektif ini kemajuan perempuan bukanlah kemajuan sebagai individu yang mandiri dan dilandasi oleh suatu kesadaran atas dasar diskriminasi kelamin (sexisme) semata, seperti apa yang terjadi di barat.

Kisah Lilis setidaknya dapat memberikan kontribusi kembali terkait pemaknaaan banyak orang tentang kesetaraan gender. Toh kapasitasnya sebagai perempuan tidak hanya menunjukan ketangguhannya untuk eksis dalam sebuah keadaan sulit, karena jelas kesadaran kodratinya pun tetap memelihara integritasnya dengan keluarga serta lingkungan.

Yaman Didu
Wartawan GOSANA Magazine

Selasa, 05 Februari 2008


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